This DOE/USDA funded project is to to develop and demonstrate an innovative pyrolysis system for converting cellulosic biomass to easy-to-transport-and-handle bio-oils which can be further converted to biofuels and bioproducts. Thermochemically converting cellulosic biomass into biofuels and bioproducts is facing two major challenges: high transportation costs associated with bulky biomass and high capital costs of current conversion technologies. Our novel strategy to address these challenges is to develop an innovative pyrolysis system that can be installed and operated on farms at affordable costs. However, Commercial pyrolysis facilities are very limited and current plant sizes are in the range of 45 to 100 tons per day, which will require large capital investment and a huge supply of feedstock. Most of the pyrolysis and gasification technologies require substantial post-conversion treatments of the conversion products. The goal of the project is To address this specific issues, the supporting objectives of the proposed activities are (1) to develop efficient and cost-effective microwave assisted pyrolysis (MAP) processes that yield high quality bio-oils, (2) to develop processes to improve the purity, stability, long-term storability of bio-oils, (3) to explore the potential of converting bio-oils to fungible fuels and biomaterials, and (4) to conduct techno-economic and environmental analysis of the processes and products. The successful completion of the project will move microwave assisted pyrolysis of biomass significantly closer to its industrial application. The successful completion of the project will allow us to produce environmentally friendly biofuels and bioproducts from agricultural and forestry biomass on/near biomass product sites and therefore help increase the energy security of the United States, bring jobs and income to biomass producers and biorefineries in rural areas, improve environments, and promote new uses of agricultural and forestry products for additional economical benefits.